Two-stage reimplantation for the treatment of deep infection after shoulder arthroplasty
Two-stage reimplantation is the most common treatment modality considered for periprosthetic shoulder infection (PSI). Most studies to date have reported on a relatively small number of shoulders. The purpose of this study was to determine the outcome of 2-stage reimplantation for PSI in terms of both eradication of infection and restoration of function.
Between 1980 and 2010, 40 shoulders (39 patients) underwent a 2-stage reimplantation for PSI; 35 shoulders (34 patients) met inclusion criteria (10 hemiarthroplasties, 24 anatomic total shoulder arthroplasties, 1 reverse total shoulder arthroplasty). Outcome data included pain, motion, Neer rating, and complications.
At most recent follow-up (4.1 years), 2-stage reimplantation had resulted in significant improvements in pain (from 4.4 to 2 on a 5-point scale; P < .0001), mean forward elevation (64°-118°; P < .0001), and mean external rotation (14°-41°; P < .0001). Preoperative testing showed leukocytosis in 1 patient, elevated C-reactive protein concentration in 67%, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate in 61%, and positive preoperative aspiration in 69%. Persistent infection, defined as positive cultures in samples obtained at the time of reimplantation, was identified in 5 shoulders (15%); 50% of persistent infections grew Propionibacterium acnes. Reoperations for infection included irrigation and débridement (1), a second 2-stage reimplantation (2), and resection arthroplasty (1); 2 additional patients were treated with chronic suppression. Reoperation for aseptic glenoid loosening was performed in 2 additional shoulders. Results were graded excellent in 10 (28%), satisfactory in 12 (33%), and unsatisfactory in 13 (39%) shoulders.
Two-stage reimplantation eradicated PSI in 85% of the shoulders. Pain relief and good arcs of motion were achieved in many patients, but there was an overall rate of unsatisfactory results approaching 40%. Preoperative testing was not always reliable for the diagnosis of PSI.